Teaching old dogs and young dogs new tricks: canine scent detection for seabird monitoring
* Correspondence author. Email: email@example.com
1 RSPB Centre for Conservation Science, The Lodge, Sandy, Bedfordshire, SG19 2DL, UK;
2 RSPB Ramsey Island, St Davids, Pembrokeshire, SA62 6PY, UK;
3 Global Species Recovery, RSPB UK Headquarters, The Lodge, Sandy, Bedfordshire, SG19 2DL, UK.
Dogs Canis familiaris have a long history of domestication, stretching back over 11,000 years (Bergstr m et al. 2020), and have been trained to perform a vast array of tasks, including protection and herding of livestock, search and rescue, assistance of the visually impaired and scent detection of a range of targets including narcotics, explosives, disease, plants and animals (Bird 1996; Gazit & Terkel 2003; Browne et al. 2006; Jezierski et al. 2016; Gerritsen & Haak 2017; Bennett et al. 2020). Canine olfactory neurophysiology is well-understood (Uemura 2015) and widely recognised to be immensely superior to human olfactory ability. In New Zealand and North America, scent dogs have been used for conservation purposes for many decades, to locate species of conservation concern, and their non-native predators (Dahlgren et al. 2012). The New Zealand Government Department of Conservation has operated a Conservation Dog Programme for many years (www.doc.govt.nz/our-work/conservation-dogprogramme, accessed 27/12/2020), to promote, manage and set the standards for the use of scent detection dogs for conservation purposes. Within Europe, the use of scent dogs is much less widespread, despite their potential for surveys of species such as Capercaillie Tetrao urogallus being recognised many years ago (e.g. Gilbert et al. 1998). A recent review (Grimm-Seyfarth et al. 2021) of over 2,400 published cases of the use of scent dogs for wildlife detection purposes found 619 employed dogs to detect avian targets, but only nine referred to the detection of seabirds. The paucity of peer-reviewed studies on canine detection of seabirds is surprising, since canine detection has been shown to be effective for species that breed in cavities and are only active above ground nocturnally (e.g. kiwis Apteryx sp. and Kakapo Strigops habroptilus). Many seabird species exhibit these same characteristics and some, such as the storm petrels, are well-known for their strong odour, which suggests that scent detection may provide an effective method for establishing the presence of nesting birds at potential breeding locations, and possibly to quantify breeding density.
The location and extent of breeding colonies of cavity-dwelling, nocturnal seabirds are often poorly known, leading to uncertainty regarding the presence of particular species at a given site. Even where the occurrence of breeding birds has been established, delimiting the extent of the breeding colony/sub-colonies (which potentially may cover vast areas in difficult terrain) is problematical, leading to large extrapolation errors in estimating population size from density of sample plots. The use of scent dogs to (i) detect the presence of a particular species at a site, and (ii) to indicate the extent of the area(s) occupied by the target species, offers considerable potential that is currently under-utilised in a European context, likely due to lack of experience of scent dog capabilities by those responsible for seabird monitoring.
Our primary aim is to highlight to the community of seabird researchers, conservation managers and statutory agencies the potential of scent dogs for seabird monitoring and to encourage further research into the efficacy and efficiency of scent dogs compared to existing methods. Here we (i) document the training, testing and performance of a one-year old Golden Retriever to locate targets treated with scent of European Storm Petrels Hydrobates pelagicus (hereafter Storm Petrel) in a variety of experimental settings, and (ii) quantify the reliability of a self-trained 12-year old Border Collie sheepdog to detect occupied Manx Shearwater Puffinus puffinus (hereafter Shearwater) nests in natural and artificial nest sites. We examine the dog’s assessment of Shearwater burrow occupancy in relation to burrow depth and the number of Shearwater occupants and the local occurrence of European Rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus (hereafter ‘Rabbits’), which may all influence scent detection. We document problems, set-backs and solutions, and quantify the relative time effort required for canine scent detection compared to conventional survey methods, acknowledging that many of these issues would not have arisen had we employed fully-trained dogs and professional handlers. We hope that our study will encourage others to consider the use of scent dogs for seabird monitoring, under professional guidance and to conduct appropriate assessment of precision and sensitivity of scent dog performance.
We thank Sally Sanford for stimulating discussion on the potential of scent dogs for conservation monitoring and for demonstrating scent dogs in action. We also thank two anonymous reviewers for helpful comments on an earlier draft of this paper.
An examination of the Training and Reliability of the Narcotics Detection Dog. Kentucky Law Journal 85: 405–433.
The use of scent-detection dogs. Irish Veterinary Journal 59: 97–104.
Canine detection guidance notes. Available online at www.cpni.gov.uk/canine-detection-guidance-notes. Accessed 27/12/2020.
The Wildlife Techniques Manual Volume 1: 140–153. The John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.
Elucidation and Durability of Odor Profiles of K9 Nose Work Materials.(Report No.6180/0306). Naval Research Lab, Washington, DC.
K9 Explosive and Mine Detection. Brush Education Inc, Canada.
Bird Monitoring Methods: a manual of techniques for key species. RSPB, Bedfordshire, UK.
Scent training for every dog. First Stone, Warminster.
Odor and nutrition. Part 2: traits of odors Ernahrungs Umschau 63: 22–30.
R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical computing, Vienna, Austria. www.R-project.org.
Die Welt der Gerüche. Spezial-Spürhunde im Einsatz. Kynos Verlag, Nerdlen/Daun, Germany.
Fundamentals of Canine Neuroanatomy and Neurophysiology. 1st ed. Wiley, Danvers, Massachusetts.